Monthly Archives: June 2018

John Lennon

John Winston Ono Lennon MBE (9 October 1940 – 8 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, and peace activist who co-founded the Beatles,[2] the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music. He and fellow member Paul McCartney formed a much-celebrated songwriting partnership. Along with George Harrison and Ringo Starr, the group would ascend to worldwide fame during the 1960s.

 He was born as John Winston Lennon in Liverpool, where he became involved in the skiffle craze as a teenager. In 1957, he formed his first band, the Quarrymen, which evolved into the Beatles in 1960. Lennon began to record as a solo artist before the band’s break-up in April 1970; two of those songs were “Give Peace a Chance” and “Instant Karma!” Lennon subsequently produced albums that included John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band and Imagine, and songs such as “Working Class Hero”, “Imagine” and “Happy Xmas (War Is Over)”. After he married Yoko Ono in 1969, he added “Ono” as one of his middle names. Lennon disengaged himself from the music business in 1975 to raise his infant son Sean, but re-emerged with Ono in 1980 with the album Double Fantasy. He was shot and killedin the archway of his Manhattan apartment building three weeks after the album was released.

Lennon revealed a rebellious nature and acerbic wit in his music, writing, drawings, on film and in interviews. Controversial through his political and peace activism, he moved from London to Manhattan in 1971, where his criticism of the Vietnam War resulted in a lengthy attempt by the Nixon administration to deport him. Some of his songs were adopted as anthems by the anti-war movement and the larger counterculture.

By 2012, Lennon’s solo album sales in the United States had exceeded 14 million units. He had 25 number-one singles on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart as a writer, co-writer, or performer. In 2002, Lennon was voted eighth in a BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britonsand in 2008, Rolling Stone ranked him the fifth-greatest singer of all time. In 1987, he was posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Lennon was twice posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: first in 1988 as a member of the Beatles and again in 1994 as a solo artist. At age 15, Lennon formed the skiffle group, the Quarrymen. Named after Quarry Bank High School, the group was established by Lennon in September 1956.[33] By the summer of 1957, the Quarrymen played a “spirited set of songs” made up of half skiffle and half rock and roll.[34]Lennon first met Paul McCartney at the Quarrymen’s second performance, which was held in Woolton on 6 July at the St. Peter’s Church garden fête. Lennon then asked McCartney to join the band.[35]

McCartney said that Aunt Mimi “was very aware that John’s friends were lower class”, and would often patronise him when he arrived to visit Lennon.[36] According to Paul’s brother Mike, McCartney’s father was also disapproving, declaring that Lennon would get his son “into trouble”,[37] although he later allowed the fledgling band to rehearse in the McCartneys’ front room at 20 Forthlin Road.[38][9] During this time, 18-year-old Lennon wrote his first song, “Hello Little Girl”, a UK top 10 hit for The Fourmost nearly five years later

After the Beatles’ final concert on 29 August 1966, Lennon was deprived of the routine of live performances; he felt lost and considered leaving the band.[65] Since his involuntary introduction to LSD, he had increased his use of the drug and was almost constantly under its influence for much of 1967.[66] According to biographer Ian MacDonald, Lennon’s continuous experimentation with LSD during the year brought him “close to erasing his identity”.[67] The year 1967 saw the release of “Strawberry Fields Forever”, hailed by Timemagazine for its “astonishing inventiveness”,[68] and the group’s landmark album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, which revealed lyrics by Lennon that contrasted strongly with the simple love songs of the ‘Lennon–McCartney’ early years.

After the Beatles were introduced to the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the group attended an August weekend of personal instruction at his Transcendental Meditation seminar in Bangor, Wales.[69] During the seminar, they were informed of Epstein’s death. “I knew we were in trouble then”, Lennon said later. “I didn’t have any misconceptions about our ability to do anything other than play music, and I was scared”.[70] Led primarily by Harrison and Lennon’s interest in Eastern religion, the Beatles later travelled to Maharishi’s ashram in India for further guidance.[71] While there, they composed most of the songs for The Beatles and AbbeyRoad

In 1970, Lennon and Ono went through primal therapy with Arthur Janov in Los Angeles, California. Designed to release emotional pain from early childhood, the therapy entailed two half-days a week with Janov for four months; he had wanted to treat the couple for longer, but they felt no need to continue and returned to London.[9] Lennon’s debut solo album, John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band (1970), was received with praise by many music critics, but its highly personal lyrics and stark sound limited its commercial performance.[97] Critic Greil Marcus remarked, “John’s singing in the last verse of ‘God’ may be the finest in all of rock.”[98] The album featured the song “Mother”, in which Lennon confronted his feelings of childhood rejection,[99] and the Dylanesque “Working Class Hero”, a bitter attack against the bourgeois social system which, due to the lyric “you’re still fucking peasants”, fell foul of broadcasters.[100][101] The same year, Tariq Ali expressed his revolutionary political views when he interviewed Lennon. This inspired the singer to write “Power to the People”. Lennon also became involved with Ali during a protest against the prosecution of Oz magazine for alleged obscenity. Lennon denounced the proceedings as “disgusting fascism”, and he and Ono (as Elastic Oz Band) released the single “God Save Us/Do the Oz” and joined marches in support of the magazine

Vitamins: What are they and what do they do?

Vitamins are organic compounds that are needed in small quantities to sustain life. Most vitamins need to come from food.

This is because the human body either does not produce enough of them, or it does not produce any at all.

Each organism has different vitamin requirements. For example, humans need to consume vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, but dogs do not. Dogs can produce, or synthesize, enough vitamin C for their own needs, but humans cannot.

People need to get most of their vitamin D from exposure to sunlight, because it is not available in large enough quantities in food. However, the human body can synthesize it when exposed to sunlight.

Different vitamins have different roles, and they are needed in different quantities.

This article explains what vitamins are, what they do, and which foods provide each type. Follow the links for more information about each type of vitamin.

Fast facts on vitaminsHere are some key points about vitamins. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

  • There are 13 known vitamins.
  • Vitamins are either water-soluble or fat-soluble.
  • Fat-soluble vitamins are easier for the body to store than water-soluble.
  • Vitamins always contain carbon, so they are described as “organic.”
  • Food is the best source of vitamins, but some people may be advised by a physician to use supplements.

What are vitamins?

Fruits and vegetables are good sources of a range of vitamins.

A vitamin is one of a group of organic substances that is present in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs. Vitamins are essential to normal metabolism. If we do not take enough of any kind of vitamin, certain medical conditions can result.

A vitamin is both:

  • an organic compound, which means it contains carbon
  • an essential nutrient that body cannot produce enough of and which it needs to get from food

    Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins

    Vitamins are either fat-soluble or water-soluble.

    Fat-soluble vitamins

    Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fatty tissues of the body and the liver. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble. These are easier to store than water-soluble vitamins, and they can stay in the body as reserves for days, and sometimes months.

    Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of fats, or lipids.

    Water-soluble vitamins

    Water-soluble vitamins do not stay in the body for long. The body cannot store them, and they are soon excreted in urine. Because of this, water-soluble vitamins need to be replaced more often than fat-soluble ones.

    Vitamin C and all the B vitamins are water soluble.


    Here are the different types of vitamins.

    Vitamin A

    Chemical names: Retinol, retinal, and four carotenoids, including beta carotene.

    • It is fat soluble.
    • Deficiency may cause night-blindness and keratomalacia, an eye disorder that results in a dry cornea.
    • Good sources include: Liver, cod liver oil, carrots, broccoli, sweet potato, butter, kale, spinach, pumpkin, collard greens, some cheeses, egg, apricot, cantaloupe melon, and milk.

    Vitamin B

    Chemical name: thiamine.

    • It is water soluble.
    • Deficiency may cause beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
    • Good sources include: yeast, pork, cereal grains, sunflower seeds, brown rice, whole-grain rye, asparagus, kale, cauliflower, potatoes, oranges, liver, and eggs.
    • Vitamin B2

      Chemical name: Riboflavin

      • It is water soluble
      • Deficiency may cause ariboflavinosis
      • Good sources include: asparagus, bananas, persimmons, okra, chard, cottage cheese, milk, yogurt, meat, eggs, fish, and green beans

      Vitamin B3

      Chemical names: Niacin, niacinamide

      • It is water soluble.
      • Deficiency may cause pellagra, with symptoms of diarrhea, dermatitis, and mental disturbance.
      • Good sources include: liver, heart, kidney, chicken, beef, fish (tuna, salmon), milk, eggs, avocados, dates, tomatoes, leafy vegetables, broccoli, carrots, sweet potatoes, asparagus, nuts, whole-grains, legumes, mushrooms, and brewer’s yeast.

      Vitamin B5

      Chemical name: Pantothenic acid

      • It is water soluble.
      • Deficiency may cause paresthesia, or “pins and needles.”
      • Good sources include: meats, whole-grains (milling may remove it), broccoli, avocados, royal jelly, and fish ovaries.

      Vitamin B6

      Chemical names: Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal

      • It is water soluble.
      • Deficiency may cause anemia, peripheral neuropathy, or damage to parts of the nervous system other than the brain and spinal cord.
      • Good sources include: meats, bananas, whole-grains, vegetables, and nuts. When milk is dried, it loses about half of its B6. Freezing and canning can also reduce content.

      Vitamin B7

      Chemical name: Biotin

      • it is water soluble.
      • Deficiency may cause dermatitis or enteritis, or inflammation of the intestine.
      • Good sources include: egg yolk, liver, some vegetables.

      Vitamin B9

      Chemical names: Folic acid, folinic acid

      • It is water soluble.
      • Deficiency during pregnancy is linked to birth defects. Pregnant women are encouraged to supplement folic acid for the entire year before becoming pregnant.
      • Good sources include: leafy vegetables, legumes, liver, baker’s yeast, some fortified grain products, and sunflower seeds. Several fruits have moderate amounts, as does beer.

      Vitamin B12

      Chemical names: Cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin

      • It is water soluble.
      • Deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia, a condition where bone marrow produces unusually large, abnormal, immature red blood cells.
      • Good sources include: fish, shellfish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk and dairy products, some fortified cereals and soy products, as well as fortified nutritional yeast.

      Vegans are advised to take B12 supplements.

      Vitamin C

      Chemical name: Ascorbic acid

      • It is water soluble.
      • Deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia.
      • Good sources include: fruit and vegetables. The Kakadu plum and the camu camu fruit have the highest vitamin C contents of all foods. Liver also has high levels. Cooking destroys vitamin C.

      Vitamin D

      Chemical names: Ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol.

      • It is fat soluble.
      • Deficiency may cause rickets and osteomalacia, or softening of the bones.
      • Good sources: Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) through sunlight or other sources causes vitamin D to be produced in the skin. Also found in fatty fish, eggs, beef liver, and mushrooms.

      Vitamin E

      Chemical names: Tocopherols, tocotrienols

      • It is fat soluble.
      • Deficiency is uncommon, but it may cause hemolytic anemia in newborns. This is a condition where blood cells are destroyed and removed from the blood too early.
      • Good sources include: Kiwi fruit, almonds, avocado, eggs, milk, nuts, leafy green vegetables, unheated vegetable oils, wheat germ, and whole-grains.

      Vitamin K

      Chemical names: Phylloquinone, menaquinones

      • It is fat soluble.
      • Deficiency may cause bleeding diathesis, an unusual susceptibility to bleeding.
      • Good sources include: leafy green vegetables, avocado, kiwi fruit. Parsley contains a lot of vitamin K.

What to do if you can’t convince your parents to let you get a tattoo?

How to convince your parents to let you get a tattoo? First of all, you need to understand that parents can be against their children getting tattooed because they worry about them. It could be that they, or their friends, have had a bad experience with tattoos and they have formed an incorrect opinion because of that.

How to convince your parents to let you get a tattoo? Guide

“Remember that the first tattoo should be small or done on a hidden place of your body. That way, it will be much easier to get your parents’ permission for the second tattoo!”

1. Try to gently ask parents what they think about tattoos. If they are totally against tattoos, your chances of getting permission are small but that isn’t a reason to give up. It is possible that your parents haven’t thought the topic over thoroughly and have only heard about bad experiences. If you convey the right information to them, your chances of convincing them will be better.

2. Don’t cause a commotion and issue ultimatums. Tattooing is an adult decision and adults don’t behave this way. Try not to fault your parents for having old-fashioned views and think that they don’t understand anything in the modern world. DON’T do this, otherwise, there is no point in reading this article! The main things to remember when approaching your parents about this are: discussion, permission and compromise.

3. Explain your motives and incentives to your parents. Tell them why it is so important for you and explain the meaning your first tattoo has. Think about the reason why you want to get a tattoo. Maybe this tattoo seems really important for you now. But there are people who regret their adolescent decision to get a tattoo.

4. Ask your parents to visit a tattoo salon with you, to speak to tattoo artists, to have a consultation with them. Following a visit to a tattoo salon, they will be reassured that the procedure will take place in a clean place, by professionals and their anxiety will disappear. Maybe they will even decide to get a tattoo as well. Such cases are not unheard of!

5. Try to earn money for a tattoo yourself — find a job to work on holidays to earn money for your first tattoo. This will be another reason to be proud of yourself and it’s a good motivation to start earning money without your parents’ help. You can find a summer job in cafes, coffee bars or with delivery services. You will not only gain work experience, but you will earn pocket money as well which you can save up for a tattoo.

What to do if you can’t convince your parents to let you get a tattoo?

1. Thank them for caring about you and trying to save you from the disappointment of a bad tattooing experience.

2. Ask them to think about it once again later. Do it with a smile on your face and behave like an adult. Your behavior might surprise them, and they might think over their initial reaction to your request. It is probably difficult for them to acknowledge that you have become an adult, an independent person who is able to make their own decisions. This is a time which is full of worries and fears for every parent. Parents need time to consider everything, to think it over, to ask for advice and, in the end, to make a decision. This will also provide additional time for you to ponder your idea of getting tattooed. At this stage you will have done everything possible to properly deliver your message to your parents.

3. Then you need to wait some time because chances are that your parents will think everything over and will give their permission in the end. Especially, if you have done everything as advised!